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Travel on Trial: A Defense of Tourism from Moral Imagination

photograph of crowded market street in Barcelona

An article making the case against recreational travel recently garnered attention, prompting many to jump to the defense of tourism. Regardless of one’s ultimate conclusion regarding the value (or lack thereof) of travel, the article’s author, Agnes Callard, makes some compelling points. The fundamental argument of the piece is that travel does not actually provide the benefits we tend to ascribe to it. A commonly accepted narrative is that travel allows us to grow in personal insights, connect with others, and to have our presuppositions challenged. However, if we are fully honest with ourselves, travel rarely seems to actually have these effects. This is perhaps most clearly displayed when we analyze the behaviors of others. While it might be easy to trick ourselves into thinking travel engenders personal transformation, if we evaluate its impact on our friends and family, we must confess that travel’s transformative impacts are few and far between. Our friends and family appear to stay mostly the same, regardless of their most recent global trek.

So in the face of this counter-evidence, why do we still insist on touting the many virtues of travel? Callard concludes by claiming that travel helps shield us from reflecting on our own mortality. Structuring our lives around our next adventure allows us to feel like the future is full of wide-open possibilities, when in all actuality, such adventures are powerless to change our eventual fate.

While there are various places one could object to Callard’s chain of reasoning, I hope to offer at least a partial vindication of the value of travel by appealing to its contributions to our moral imagination. I agree with Callard that the link between personal transformation and travel can be overstated, but I contend that travel (at least in principle) has the capacity to reshape our moral lives in helpful ways. Moral imagination consists in our ability to effectively identify the full array of options when it comes to ethical thinking and decision-making. A well-cultivated moral imagination is what allows us to transcend mere moral convention and to strive for better ways of living. It allows us to act intentionally in ways that we deem morally ideal, regardless if we see others around us acting in a similar manner.

The concept of moral imagination is multifaceted, so I’ll unpack two aspects of moral imagination in order to illustrate my claim about the potential of travel. One such related concept is that of framing, which deals with the frame of reference through which one engages the world. Depending on one’s frame, one might be more or less likely to ignore morally salient features of situations. For instance, someone who grows up on a dairy farm might be shut off to the possibility of ethical veganism, not due to having a substantive objection to the position, but merely due to a lack of exposure to the idea. The cultural factors relevant to the individual’s environment which make the viewpoint seem intuitively implausible, function to exclude it from one’s frame.

Of course, just because it doesn’t fall within one’s frame doesn’t exclude it from potentially being the morally correct position. Particularly when one has limited exposure to other ways of life, travel can help expand one’s frame to be inclusive of a wider array of moral possibilities and categories. Regardless if the dairy farmer still opts to reject ethical veganism after considering the position, it seems morally preferable that they reject it for considered reasons as opposed to failing to ever consider it.

Another dimension of moral imagination is that of having well-developed moral vision. One who has moral vision lacks significant ethical blind spots, and such an agent can readily identify the morally relevant features of situations. The opposite of moral vision is that of moral myopia or moral blindness. Consider a young business owner who is seeking to grow her company. She might very well decide to outsource the material production of her products to a nation with less regulation around such activities. However, she fails to do her due diligence, by opting not to look too deeply into the working conditions of the employees producing her company’s products. The business owner’s frame allows for the consideration of the workers’ conditions, it’s just that she also experiences financial incentives to avoid seriously grappling with the issue in front of her, which potentially prevents her from coming up with creative solutions.

Since widening one’s moral frame and strengthening one’s moral vision are constitutive parts of fostering moral imagination, what positive role does travel supposedly play? Let’s start with unpacking the link between travel and the expansion of one’s moral frame. One’s moral frame is established by the set of experiences, assumptions, and beliefs one brings to the table of moral deliberation. If we consider the dairy farmer example, it is plausible to think that the experience of other cultures, which revere animal life differently and consume an alternative kind of diet, would encourage him to consider other ethical outlooks. Insofar as stretching one’s moral frame is directly linked to the expansion of moral possibilities, travel is the ideal tool since it allows for the consideration of diverse perspectives. Of course, Callard is correct in her assertion that the mere opportunity for such consideration does not mean that people will actually take advantage of the opportunity. It is simply to say that travel affords one increased potential to grow their moral imagination via exposure to diverse perspectives.

Similarly, we have good reason to think there’s a positive relationship between travel and the prevention of moral blindspots. There are certain daily realities faced by those in different cultures, socio-economic brackets, and religious systems, which we fail to consider in our moral deliberations. This fact might be particularly relevant when considering topics like the ethics of charitable giving and the way we engage with the global economy. Failure to appropriately appreciate the ways in which our actions (or inactions) impact those in our global community can certainly lead to moral blind spots in these areas, due to certain cultural and financial incentives to continue on in relative ignorance. Thus, travel has a unique ability to shake-up the status quo of our moral life, providing us a rich avenue for the cultivation of our moral imagination.

Are Vaccines Passports Ethical?

photograph of COVID immunization card

The pandemic has been this recurring episode of things seeming like they may get back to normal only to find that new developments means that things could last longer. It was easy to think that once vaccinations against COVID-19 were available, people would get vaccinated and the pandemic would be over. As one Canadian scientist notes, “Everyone needs this damned virus to go away…but it’s not done with us yet,” while an American virus expert notes “we thought we saw the light at the end of the tunnel—but apparently the tunnel is longer.” Against the backdrop of this frustration and desire to return to normalcy (and to get as many vaccinated as possible), the matter of vaccine passports have become a significant ethical issue as Israel and Europe move ahead with their adoption. Some U.S. states and six Canadian provinces have (or are) adopting a passport system as well. But why does the prospect of a vaccine passport present such an ethical challenge?

The principle behind a vaccine passport system is that it allows businesses and governments to quickly and easily determine who is vaccinated in order to facilitate travel. In many of the jurisdictions which have adopted them, a passport might be required to enter restaurants and bars, nightclubs, sports and fitness facilities, casinos, concerts, music halls, and more. The goal behind the passports is to help minimize transmission while also encouraging people to get vaccinated. However, their efficacy will depend both on the details but also on which goal is taken to be more important.

For starters, some such as Chloe Kent argue that while passports are an ethical means to help facilitate international travel, they are unethical for use domestically. She points out that vaccinations as a requirement to enter a country isn’t new for international travelers and that in many nations which are behind in vaccine rollouts, an international vaccine passport system could help both the country and the tourists. However, she is concerned about the potential inequalities that could result from a domestic passport system. Thus, it is important to note the potential ethical distinctions between different forms of passports.

According to Rebecca Brown et al. from the journal The Lancet, “Immunity passports could be implemented on the basis of either a laboratory test of immune response or an immunizing event, which would identify individuals less likely to get disease or transmit virus when exposed to SARS-CoV-2.” But, according to the authors, the important immunological issues for such passports are the degree of immunity induced and the duration of the immunity: “A neglected issue in discussions of immunity passports is that of individual protection versus community protection. Perhaps the most important consideration for immunity passports is whether an individual can transmit the infection to others.”

They note that studies of previous seasonable coronaviruses suggest that vaccination may protect against severe disease but with a relatively unchanged potential for transmission. This fact, “provides the greatest challenge to the assurance that individuals who carry immunity passports would have a reduced risk to others.”

However, the picture about transmissibility of the virus by the fully vaccinated is complicated. Studies have shown a reduced viral load in those who are fully vaccinated for certain strains; unfortunately, the delta variant is different. Data on the variant has revealed that those with a breakthrough infection carry similar viral loads to those who are unvaccinated. However, it also suggests that these levels diminish much faster in a vaccinated person than a non-vaccinated person. There is also a long-term concern about how long vaccine immunity lasts (and thus whether booster shots may become necessary) and this could make a passport system largely pointless over time.

So, if a passport is designed to prevent spread, it is unclear how well it will achieve that goal. The delta variant complicates the picture, but for other variants a passport system may prevent spread. But overall, the efficacy of a passport system for preventing spread of COVID-19 is not fully clear. However, preventing non-vaccinated people from entering certain public spaces may still protect them as well. The data has consistently shown that unvaccinated people face the biggest risk and take up the bulk of spaces in ICU beds.

On the other hand, Eloise McLennan argues that the growing frustration with not being able to visit loved ones or to interact in public means that a vaccine passport system could incentivize people to get vaccinated. This may be a better alternative to get people vaccinated rather than to mandate vaccines which carries even greater ethical and legal concerns. If more people become vaccinated because of a passport system, then it could create additional economic benefits as pandemic restrictions can be lifted.

On the other hand, critics of vaccine passport systems argue that, in addition to concerns about their potential efficacy, passports segregate society in ways that are ethically harmful. Natalie Kofler and Françoise Baylis argue that, historically speaking, such vaccine passport systems have aggravated inequalities and permitted systemic racism. Indeed, the capacity for creating inequality is one of the major ethical concerns of such a proposal. According to Scientific American, “An ethical immunity passport system should exacerbate inequality. Access to the vaccine is very unequal in different regions and even within the same region.” There are also members of racialized, indigenous, and disadvantaged communities who may be mistrustful of medical and government institutions. As a result, a passport system would encourage division and potentially make things worse for those who are worse off.

International development expert Robert Huish argues that exclusion can marginalize people to disengage from public health efforts to protect the broader community, noting, “If you feel that the system isn’t working for you, public health isn’t speaking on your behalf, they’re coming up with orders that don’t apply, or that make you feel uncomfortable, you’re more likely to withdraw from engagement.” And Brown et al. point out that inequality in healthcare is not new. Yet, this reason is rarely interpreted as a reason to remove health-care treatments or to refuse to introduce new ones. While they believe more effort is needed to secure equitable health outcomes, this is not a reason to reject an immunity passport.

Another major concern about a passport system is that they violate civil and privacy rights. UNESCO’s ethics commission calls for any passport system to not allow the nonvaccinated to be discriminated against by limiting their movements. On the other hand, some argue that the actual loss of privacy involved to confirm vaccination status is inconsequential. And while there may be reason to worry about the segregation of society into the vaccinated and unvaccinated, it is also important to note from an ethical standpoint that this division is already an established fact. While many cannot get vaccinated, many more could. In effect, such people put additional burdens on healthcare systems and economic activity. So, while there is a reason to be ethically worried about the rights of the unvaccinated, the unvaccinated themselves should consider their ethical responsibilities. Sahakian et al. argue, for example, using Peter Singer’s principle of the duty of easy rescue that the extremely low risk of side effects of the vaccine compared to the benefits it creates means that, “vaccination passports are a minimal cost for returning to daily life…they are a small sacrifice for the greater good.”

This point is even more relevant in regions which have a public healthcare system. The cost of a vaccine is a fraction of the cost of an ICU bed, so those who can get vaccinated but don’t incur great additional cost to the public. So, ultimately the question about the ethical justification of a vaccine passport system involves a trade-off between certain potential benefits and costs which may be largely unknowable for now. If the system is unable to prevent spread, it may be able to increase uptake in vaccination rates. But the question is whether these upsides are worth the potential for social division and a violation of rights.

The Ethics of Vaccination Passports

photograph of couple presenting passport

The light at the end of the tunnel appears to finally be approaching after a year of the COVID-19 pandemic. Now that multiple vaccines are available in most countries and roll-out plans are ongoing, albeit at a slow pace in the United States, questions about getting back to “normal” are starting to be asked. Chief among these are ones regarding the most restricted activity with COVID-19, as well as the most sought after: international travel. After many countries restricted their borders with the United States due to COVID-19, it seems that Americans are itching to fly across oceans to enjoy the vacations that were cancelled in 2020. Now, countries must ask how travel can occur safely, or at least how the risk of spreading the coronavirus across international borders, which started the pandemic in the first place, might be limited. One possible solution being considered by multiple countries is a “vaccination passport.” Providing certification for those having received full vaccination would streamline things so that those inoculated against the virus might have privileged access to enter countries, ride on airplanes, and potentially even use gyms or enter bars.

The concept of only allowing entrance of persons with certain vaccines is not foreign. The World Health Organization issues the Yellow Card for people who have been vaccinated against certain deadly diseases in order to prevent the outbreak of those diseases in certain countries. The Yellow Card, then, is very similar to the suggested vaccine passport, except that COVID-19 raises a number of pressing questions concerning accessibility. Throughout this pandemic, minorities have been disproportionately affected by the virus. Facing systemic racism in the U.S., minorities have been less likely to receive adequate healthcare, to possess the necessary housing needed for quarantining, and to enjoy employment opportunities that might offer work-from-home options. Now that vaccines have been rolling out, it is the same situation: neighborhoods that faced the worst consequences of the coronavirus are now being the last to be vaccinated. While some countries might have very strong vaccine roll-out programs, the United States quickly fell behind the Trump administration’s goal of 20 million vaccines by the end of 2020 by about 17 million. Now, the Biden administration has committed to 100 million vaccinations in the first 100 days. Unfortunately, he first has to patch together a tremendous nation-wide effort in a country that has a very complex and privatized healthcare system — a system which has created many issues for Americans trying to get the vaccine.

It is, however, not only a question of access and who can get the vaccine, but also about considering the situation of those who can’t. At the very beginning of vaccine roll-out, it appeared that some Americans with allergies would simply not be able to get the vaccine because of the risk of anaphylactic shock, which can be deadly. If vaccine passports were required to enter some countries, then some people would simply be unable to enter them for an uncertain amount of time. It could take years before countries loosen restrictions or vaccine providers provide an alternative with different ingredients than those that currently make up the dose. There is also the question of what form the vaccine passport would take. Many countries are interested in a digital card that people could access through their phones. While many people may have access to a smart phone capable of holding documentation of a vaccination, plenty of people still do not have access to that technology, either out of choice or because it is not an affordable option. Technology then becomes just another barrier to international travel.

The main motivation behind these passports is an understandable desire to return to the feeling of living in a “normal” society, where people can move fairly freely throughout the world. Just the desire to travel is one that many people across the world share as it allows them to form meaningful relationships and connections with people both different and similar to themselves — a good the pandemic has stripped from us. Before we can get back to a sense of “normal,”  however, it is important to remember that this pandemic is far from over, especially in the United States. It would make sense, therefore, to have some sort of system set up to prevent people from spreading the virus across countries and continents. These passports raise important concerns about equality in access to medical, technological, and human goods. Many people would be left behind if these passports were to be implemented without addressing the fact that different populations do not have the same access to goods. Vaccine passports would effectively create a 2-tier citizenship hierarchy with those who have been lucky enough to receive full vaccination the freedom to move about in the world and take advantage of unique offerings that would even include public facilities. A great many people, and more importantly those already vulnerable and marginalized, will continue to be restricted in their movements and will lack access to the same opportunities that those with the vaccine would enjoy. This pandemic has already aggravated many inequalities and injustices between populations in the world, and a vaccine passport threatens to further codify this unjustified unequal treatment.

Where You Should Go On Vacation

Ethical Traveler has just released their top 10 best ethical travel destinations for 2016. Each year, they rank ten developing countries that are the most forward thinking in terms of human rights, environmental conservation, animal welfare, and supporting social welfare while also maintaining a lively tourism industry. Using these criteria, they release a list of ten developing countries that should be supported in the next year.

Continue reading “Where You Should Go On Vacation”